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Programming Languages

Computer programming is a way of giving instructions for computers about what they should do next. These instructions are known as code, and computer programmers write code to solve problems or perform a task.

It is the process of designing and building an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task.
The source code of a program is written in one or more programming languages.
The end goal of computer programming is to create something: that could mean anything from a web page, or a piece of software, or even just a pretty picture. That’s why computer programming is often described as a mix between art and science; it’s technical and analytical, yet creative at the same time.
Programming Domains

  1. Scientific applications
  2. In the early 40s computers were invented for scientific applications.
    The applications require large number of floating point computations.
    Fortran was the first language developed scientific applications.
    ALGOL 60 was intended for the same use.

  3. Business applications
  4. The first successful language for business was COBOL.
    Produce reports, use decimal arithmetic numbers and characters.
    The arrival of PCs started new ways for businesses to use computers.
    Spreadsheets and database systems were developed for business.

  5. Artificial intelligence
  6. Symbolic rather than numeric computations are manipulated.
    Symbolic computation is more suitably done with linked lists than arrays.
    LISP was the first widely used AI programming language.

  7. Systems programming
  8. The O/S and all of the programming supports tools are collectively known as its system software.
    Need efficiency because of continuous use.

  9. Scripting languages
  10. Put a list of commands, called a script, in a file to be executed.
    PHP is a scripting language used on Web server systems. Its code is embedded in HTML documents. The code is interpreted on the server before the document is sent to a requesting browser.

  11. Special-purpose languages
  12. RPG is an example of these languages.

    Programming Languages
    In a programming world, there are many languages
    Those are mentioned in to three category. Procedural, Structured and Object Oriented Programming Paradigms.

     a) Procedural Programming.
    Procedural programming is a programming paradigm based upon the concept of procedure call. Procedural programming is often a better choice than simple sequential programming in many situations which involve moderate complexity or which require significant ease of maintainability.
    Possible benefits: the ability to re-use the same code (function or procedure) at different places, an easier way to keep track of program flow than a collection of “GO TO” or “JUMP” statements.

    b) Structured Programming.
    Process of writing a program in small, independent parts. This makes it easier to control a program’s development and to design and test its individual component parts.
    Structured programs are built up from units called modules, which normally correspond to single procedures or functions.
    Can be seen as a subset or sub discipline of procedural programming. It is most famous for removing or reducing reliance on the GO TO statement.

    c) Object-Oriented Programming.
    The idea behind OOP is that, a computer program is composed of a collection of individual units, or objects as opposed to traditional view in which a program is a list of instructions to the computer.
    Object-oriented programming is claimed to give more flexibility, easing changes to programs. The OOP approach is often simpler to develop and maintain.